Wednesday, February 20, 2013

Online timer stopwatch

Spring-driven  timer alarm appeared in the 15th century,although he had wrongly assumed that the artisans at Peter Henlein in Nürnberg are created around the year 1511.The earliest spring-driven  timer alarm still there is room  timer alarm was given to Peter the Good, Duke of Burgundy, circa 1430, and is now kept in Germanisches Nationalmuseum. [10] Power spring also creates new problems in artisan hour, which is how to keep the  timer alarm movement continues at a constant rate when spring becomes lethargic. The result is the creation stackfreed and fusee in the 15th century, followed by many more innovations, until the creation of the modern going barrel in 1760.

Surface hours early just to show the hours, not minutes and seconds. Hour minute show on his face reflected in the writings of Paul Almanus manuscript in 1475.  There are a few hours of the 15th century made in Germany that show minutes and seconds.

In the 15th century and the 16th, carpentry hours more bloom, especially in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in Blois, France. There is a simple desktop  timer alarm berjarun only one, with the interval between markers hour is divided into four quarters that the  timer alarm can be read accurately the near-exact 15 minutes. Meanwhile, the  timer alarm is also a show craftsmanship and skill guidance astronomy and musical animation. Bolosan cross rhythm created by Jost Bürgi, developers also remontoire, in 1584. Bürgi's creations hour is a major improvement in precision  timer alarm because the time was right in a minute a day.The hours of this help astronomers of the 16th century, Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events more precisely than before.

Mechanical weight-driven astronomical  online timer alarm which features bolosan verge-and-foliot, marches whisk gear, alarms, and the symbolism of the moon cycles described by the Ottoman engineer, Takiyuddin in his book, Al-Kawākib Fī durriyya wadh al-al-al-dawriyya bankāmat (" Stars Top Distinction for Construction Machinery  timer alarm "), published in 1556-1559.Similar to the European alarm  timer alarm early 15th century, [20] [21] it can beep at a certain time with pegs located on the wheel face. At the appropriate time, the switch on the device twang pegs. The  timer alarm had three each face pointing the hours, degrees and minutes. Then, Takiyuddin produce a  timer alarm observatory to observatory Taqi al-Din in Istanbul (1577-1580). He memerikannya as "a three-sided  timer alarm machinery that calculates the value of the hours, minutes and seconds." This is one of the important innovations in the practice of 16th century astronomy, as at the beginning of the century, the hours available are not quite suitable for use in astronomy. France Rokoko bracket  timer alarm, (Museum of Time, Besançon)

Development to improve the accuracy of hours to advance further with the creation of the pendulum  timer alarm after year 1656. Galileo's pendulum swinging the use of shadow to control the movement of the tape recorder at the beginning of the 17th century. However, Christiaan Huygens considered to be the author, as he determines mathematical formulas that relate the length of the pendulum to time (99.38 cm or 39.13 for one second movement), thus disclosing the first pendulum-driven  timer alarm in the world.

One of the main stimulants to enhance the accuracy and integrity of the hour is the importance of precise time care for the purpose of navigation. Positions of ships at sea can be determined rigorously if the browser can read hours under or over ten seconds a day. The  timer alarm shall be no pendulum, because it can not be worn in the restive ship. Many European governments that offer great reward for anyone who could determine longitude rigorously, for example, Great Britain offer 20,000 pounds, equivalent to millions of dollars in the present age. Remuneration falls in the hands of John Harrison in 1761, as he dedicated his life to improving the accuracy of  timer alarm-hour. His H5  timer alarm creations just experienced an error less than 5 seconds over 10 weeks.

The excitement of the pendulum  timer alarm had attracted the attention of designers, resulting in a growing diversity in the resulting form of hours in the world, especially at large stand created to house the pendulum and exchange hours. Appreciation is given to the artisans at English, William Clement for developing this form of  timer alarm circa 1670-71. At the same time, the skin is also an increasing number of hours is made of wood while using the  timer alarm face hand painted enamel and pottery.
French decimal  timer alarm from the time of the French Revolution

On 17 November 1797, Eli Terry received his first patent for an invention hours. Terry is known as the founder of the U.S. industry trade hours.

Tailor-hour Scotland, Alexander Bain, patented inventions hours of electricity in 1840. Electric  timer alarm main spring lock with an electric motor or electromagnet and armature. In 1841, he first patented the electromagnetic pendulum.

Electronic development in the 20th century to produce the types of hours, of no exchange hours, otherwise the time recorded by other means such as vibration tuning fork, the behavior of quartz crystals or quantum vibrations of atoms. Mechanical online timer stopwatch was mostly driven by a battery.

Online visual timer

None of the earliest hours late 13th century that still exist in Europe, but fortunately the church records a chance to take a little of the history of such early hours.

Horologia term (from the Greek: ὡρα, at (time), and λέγειν, to tell) was used to designate the type of device that is now an hour, but the use of this word (still there or leave an impression in several languages, Roman) for all types of recorders time concealing the true nature of our mechanism. Example, recorded in 1176 a newspaper that Sens Cathedral installed a 'horologe' but the mechanism is not known. According to Jocelin of Brakelond, in 1198 when a fire at the abbey of St. Edmundsbury (now Bury St Edmunds), the monks 'rushing toward the  timer alarm' to fetch water, indicating that their water online timer alarm also acts as a water reservoir large enough to extinguish the fire at the time.
New mechanism

Outside Europe, the mechanism bolosan known and used in China in the middle ages, when members horological and engineers Song Dynasty, Su Song (1020-1101) to apply them to the creation of Astronomical  timer alarm tower in Kaifeng in 1088.  However, the astronomical  timer alarm and spherical rotating AIK still rely on the use of water flow (ie hydraulics), while European exchanges hours at the following centuries already stripped the old habits for power drive load efficiently and bolosan mechanism.

Hours if his mercury in Spanish papers Libros del Saber from 1277 M that contains translation and paraphrase from Arab papers, are also used as evidence for knowledge of mechanical  timer alarm in the Muslim world. However, the device is actually a compartmentalized cylindrical water  timer alarm built by "Iran" (Hero of Alexandria), according to the authors of the working paper are Jews, Rabbi Isaac.

From the year 1280 to 1320, more and more hours and horologe mentioned in church records. Perhaps this is an indication that the creation of a new type of  timer alarm mechanism. Existing  timer alarm mechanisms that use water power for power pacuannya adapted from the weight down. Power is controlled by the same shape swinging mechanism which is probably derived from existing bell sounding device at the time. This controlled release of power (bolosan) marks the birth of the true mechanical  timer alarm.

Mechanical  timer alarm has two main purposes, namely: signaling and notification (eg the timing of services and public events) for administrative purposes, and modeling of solar systems for the use of scholars in astronomy, science, astrology, and integration of knowledge with the philosophies of the religious . Astrolabe used by astronomers and astrology, it is not surprising hour drive belt used on rotating plate to produce a working model of the solar system.

Brief hour notification aimed only be installed on the tower, and not necessarily the face and needle. It certainly used to declare the statutory hours or intervals between prayer times. Statutory hours vary in length according to changes in sunrise and sunset. More sophisticated astronomical  timer alarm to show your face or a needle that moves, and shows the time in various time systems, including the "Italian hours" (24 hours begins at sunset / dusk), the statutory  online alarm timer, and also the specific time is done by the astronomy in those days. The two styles of  timer alarm started to use fancy features like a puppet automaton.
Further development of

Tailor hours of taking a variety of ways to develop their art. Small  timer alarmmaking technically challenging, as well as the improvement of accuracy and integrity. Hours can be used to highlight the grandeur of the impressive technical skills, or the mass exodus of goods cheaper to use in the home. Bolosan is a major factor affecting the precision  timer alarm, so all kinds of mechanisms have been tried for this purpose.

Online timer alarm now

Sundial measure time by the sun is widely used in ancient online timer. Nice sundial can measure local solar time rigorously. Permanent sundial as a mechanical  timer alarm performance observation until modern times. However, sundials need sunlight and useless at night, so the need for other techniques for measuring time.

Hour candles and joss sticks at a speed of narrowing the uniform is also used to estimate the passage of time. Hour sand is characterized by fine sand through a small hole at a constant rate as an indicator of the times.
Water  timer alarm
Scale model building Astronomy  timer alarm Tower Su Song built in Kaifeng, China in the 11th century. The  timer alarm is driven by the water wheel, chain drive, and bolosan mechanism.

Besides sundials, water  timer alarms or klepsidra also among the world's oldest instrument time, apart nails and wood vertical shadow tallies the count day.  It was difficult to ensure when and where the first water  timer alarms exist. Hour bowl-shaped water flowing out is the simplest form of water  timer alarms and known to have existed in Babylon and Egypt around the 16th century BC. Evidence of the earliest water  timer alarm is also found in other places such as India and China, but the earliest date use less sure. Some historians write that water  timer alarms appeared in the region as early as 4000.

A Grecian astronomer, Andronicus of Cyrrhus, supervise construction Wind Towers in Athens in the first century BC.  Ancient Greek and Roman Civilization appreciated because they are the first to develop water  timer alarm design to include complex gearing  connected with puppets in addition to increasing  timer alarm accuracy. Progress is passed on to the golden age of Byzantium and Islam before breaking into Europe in the Middle Ages. Meanwhile, the Chinese develop their own water at 725 in M, then extend their ideas to Korea and Japan.
Automatic timer alarm of al-Jazari invention, the 12th century.

In 797 (or 801), the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, the present invention that water  timer alarm "so ornate" [5] with an Asian Elephant named Abul-Abbas to the Emperor Charlemagne.
The earliest mechanical  timer alarm

None of the earliest hours late 13th century that still exist in Europe, but fortunately the church records a chance to take a little of the history of such early hours.

Horologia term (from the Greek: ὡρα, at (time), and λέγειν, to tell) was used to designate the type of device that is now an hour, but the use of this word (still there or leave an impression in several languages, Roman) for all types of recorders time concealing the true nature of our mechanism. Example, recorded in 1176 a newspaper that Sens Cathedral installed a 'horologe' but the mechanism is not known. According to Jocelin of Brakelond, in 1198 when a fire at the abbey of St. Edmundsbury (now Bury St Edmunds), the monks 'rushing toward the  timer alarm' to fetch water, indicating that their water  timer alarm also acts as a water reservoir large enough to extinguish the fire at the time

Online timer alarm history

A  timer alarm can often serve as an alarm and therefore has a wekwijzer which the alarm is set.

    In many wall  timer alarms is the wekwijzer on the hour hand. He turns the hour hand and it can hand over the hour hand adjusted. State wekwijzer top, then the alarm goes off. On the hour hand, near the axis, the numbers from 1 t / m 12 engraved to be helpful when setting the alarm.
    A minor alarm has wekwijzer under the hour. This does not rotate along with the movement, but is used by the user at a desired time setting. Runs the hour hand on the wekwijzer, then the alarm goes off.

Finally, many  timer alarms the date, month, weekday and the moon phase state. The indication of this is usually with numbers or letters behind a window.

 timer alarms with a pendulum or unrest are usually analog.

countdown online timer alarm (Lt. CLOC, "bell") is originally a manual bell people used to notify time with (church, school, dinner-time, etc.), such as church bell, school bell or dinner bell. In more modern times the term has also gained importance as watches or movements, originally a mechanically operated instrument that shows the time. Modern watches are however either powered by batteries, solar panels or other mechanical-biological solutions. The most accurate  countdown timer alarms today are impure atom. One can buy relatively cheap watches closely following nuclear unclean by means of radio signals.

Watches also occur as portable watches (wrist and pocket), which in addition to showing the time also can display the weekday, date, month, year, etc. Such watches can be analog or digital.

In modern times is at himself often on mobile phones, fastened on the wrist with a strap (often made of leather, metal or nylon material), fixed on the wall, a computer, a  countdown timer alarm radio, in video players and other electronic equipment.

Sundial has been used since ancient times and is the easiest way to view time as the shadow of a pole, a gnomon, placed on a sun disk divided in 24 hours. Mechanical movements in the church tower stems from the 1200s, but was unreliable and had to be corrected with a sundial. Hour glass was used in the 1300s and remained in use on ships for over 500 years.

Astronomical  countdown timer alarms are known from the 1400s, and was advanced mechanical instruments which were probably introduced in Norway all about 1550. In the centuries that followed the Netherlands was an important production countries for watches used in Norway.
Balthazar Martinot Wall  countdown timer alarm 1678, France. The house (shell containing movement) is made of colored tortoiseshell.
Photo: Erlend Bjørtvedt.

Mechanical watches were manufactured in Germany, Britain and France from the 1600s, and in the United States from the 1700s. They were often very elaborate decoration in gold, porcelain or ivory, and was built for the noble and great citizenship. This was particularly popular status objects among the nobility of France. Benjamin Franklin produced watches in the USA.

So called lanterneur had only hour shows. Around 1660 failed watchmaker in Europe to make double movement so that one could introduce minute shows.  countdown timer alarmmakers were foremost engineers of his time and had in-depth knowledge of physical mechanics. Systems was a particular challenge - in 1725, we know the first cuckoo  countdown timer alarms from Switzerland.

Gustav Becker in the German city of Freiburg was among the most famous engineers in the second half of the 1800s, mass-produced  countdown timer alarms for use in railway stations, etc. The southern German factories did remember beckons to everyone, and bettered Norwegian watchmaking industry.

 countdown timer alarm Gunsmithing built up in a number of countries, including Norway. We know the subject in this country from 1730, it was often blacksmiths or tenant farmers who learned watchmaking. Peder Nøttestad in Christiania was a pioneer. The astronomer and priest Abraham Pihl (1756-1821) was the pioneer in Oslo, and started a scholarly tradition there. Pihl was one of the first Norwegian designers of watchmaking, while Amond T. Smebyh was behind the so-called "Toten  countdown timer alarm". Peder Larsen Bierke was another watchmaker in Toten tradition. It was too long a watch-maker tradition in Kristiansand. In the first half of the 1800s, faced with competition from German and American importur very strong.
John Harrison's Chronometer H5.

When a ship navigated on the classical view of the Earth is dependent on being able to see its length and width. Width is relatively easy to find by astronomical navigation. However, to find the length is dependent on an accurate time measurement. This need for a highly accurate chronometer that could withstand changes in temperature, corrosion and ship movements in the sea were  countdown timer alarmmakers challenges faced.

The carpenter John Harrison was the one who succeeded in making the first accurate marine chronometer in the mid 1700's. He worked with three prototypes from 1728 to 1761, as part of a competition announced by the British government. Such  countdown timer alarms were in use from around 1800.

For the vessels before departure should be able to check their chronometers was previously common in many large ports firing a cannon shot, most often at. 12:00 local time, also at. 13:00 is used eg. in Edinburgh. At Greenwich lowered a large red ball on the roof of the observatory at exactly. 13.00.

Today, ships worldwide control their chronometers by modern systems like GPS, which is controlled by highly accurate atomic  countdown timer alarm.